**Summary**

**Holistic
Quantum Cosmology with Decreasing Gravity**

**A
unifying theory about the universe**

**The
UNITON THEORY**

The Danish physicist *Louis
Nielsen* has, by quantization of space, time and mass, discovered
connections between microcosmos and macrocosmos. This discovery - giving a
possibility for a Quantum Theory about the Universe - shows a connection
between cosmological quantities, such as the total energy/matter mass of the
Universe, its actual extension, the velocity of light and the gravitational 'constant',
and atomic quantities, such as Planck's constant, the mass of an electron, its
extension and its electric charge.

The whole theory is based on the existence of a *physically smallest distance -* *the
elementary length* - with the value of
r_{0} = 1.4·10^{-102} m, a *physically smallest time* *interval
- the elementary time* - with the value of t_{0} = 4.7·10^{-111}
s, and a *variable actually* *smallest physical mass* - *the* *elementary
mass* - with an actual value of m_{u} = 2.2·10^{-68} kg.
This smallest mass represents the smallest and most fundamental energy/matter
quantum in the actual Universe and is by Louis Nielsen called an **UNITON.** All physical lengths, time
intervals and masses are equal to a *natural
number* multiplied by the respective elementary quantity.

**The Cosmic Uniton-Field, the
CUF**

'THE COSMIC UNITON-FIELD' is a concept introduced by Louis Nielsen in
his theories about 'The Evolving
Dynamic Quantum Universe'. The "**COSMIC
UNITON-FIELD",** abbreviated the
CUF, is the fundamental background cosmic "Quantum Medium" in which
ALL processes are going on. The CUF consists of UNITONS. The unitons are the
smallest and most fundamental energy/matter quanta in the Universe. The uniton
has - in our epoch - a mass which is
about 10^{37} times smaller than the mass of an electron. The unitons
exist all over the Universe, also in so-called empty space (vacuum). In the CUF
the unitons move in all directions with very high velocities.

The unitons can penetrate all matter. In our epoch the temperature of
the CUF is near

the absolute zero of temperature, near 0 kelvin. Ordinary 'matter',
like electrons, are quantum-dynamical subsystems in the CUF, they are *'Bose-Einstein condensations'* in the
extremely cold CUF.

**The discrete
uniton-evolution of the Universe **

When the Universe was 'born' within the first cosmic quantum time
interval, at about 11 billion years ago, it had an extension equal to the
elementary length, and it consisted of only *one
quantum*, called the *Cosmic Embryoton.*
The evolution of the Universe is 'controlled' by a *'Cosmic Evolution Quantum Number'*, N^{3}, which is
'ticking' up through the *natural numbers*.
The number N is equal to the actual ratio between the magnitude of the
electrostatic forces and the gravitostatic forces between two electrons. In our
epoch N = 4.17·10^{42}.

The Universe was born when N took the value 1. Gradually, as the
'cosmic evolution quantum number' increased in 'steps', the original cosmic
embryoton is divided into more and more unitons. The actual number of unitons
is equal to the actual value of the cosmic evolution quantum number. This
increasing number of unitons, with smaller and smaller masses, is spreading out
in a discrete expanding universe.

A consequence of the increasing value of N is a generally discrete decrease of the gravitation in the
Universe. When the Universe was 'born', the gravitation was N times higher than
in our epoch.

The extension of the present universe is shown to be N³ = 7.2·10^{127}
times the elementary length, corresponding to an extension of 10^{26}
m. The number 7.2·10^{127 }is also the number of unitons in the present
universe, which gives a total mass of the universe equal to 1.6·10^{60}
kg.

As the huge number of unitons
are not all 'bound' in what we call 'matter', the highest number of unitons
must be found in so-called empty space, also called vacuum. The theory
therefore predicts the existence of a cosmic "*Quantum Medium* '', consisting of unitons. This cosmic 'Quantum
Medium' is by Louis Nielsen called the **'Cosmic
Uniton-Field'**, abbreviated CUF. The unitons in the CUF move in all
directions with very high velocities. The temperature of the CUF is near the
absolute zero of temperature, near 0 kelvin. As a logical consequence of his
theory about the universe, Louis Nielsen introduces an uniton-dynamical and
cosmic dependent model of the electron.

'Matter', like electrons, are *'Bose-Einstein
condensations'* in the very cold CUF.

Louis Nielsen gives an uniton
mechanical explanation of both the gravitational forces and the electrical
forces between two electrons. The forces are established through mechanical
collision-forces between unitons. He thus shows that the electrical forces are
of the same basic nature as the gravitational forces, however with a strength
being N times greater.

Louis Nielsen gives a
uniton-mechanical explanation of the fact that bodies with different masses fall – in vacuum – with the same
acceleration near to f.i. the Earth, an experimental result which was
demonstrated by Galilei's famous fall experiment, but which has been difficult
to explain theoretically.

The connection between
gravitational forces and electrical forces is a consequence of Louis Nielsen's
discovery of another connection between microcosmos and macrocosmos, namely
that the ratio between the mass density, or the uniton-density, in an electron
and the average mass density, or the uniton-density, of the universe is equal
to the number N. In other words: The
uniton-density in an electron is N times the average uniton-density of the
universe.

As a consequence of the discovered equations, other equations are
derived, permitting us to calculate the total mass of the Universe, its actual
extension and its age, by means of locally measured atomic physical constants
and the gravitational'constant'.

**Invariant discrete Absolute
Cosmic Time, the age of the Universe**

According to Louis Nielsen's Theory every cosmic quantum 'jump' gives
ONE MORE UNITON IN THE UNIVERSE and this *quantum change* in the universe is equivalent to *one cosmic elementary time interval*.
(Tempus mutatio est).

The age of the Universe is thus proportional to the actual total number
of unitons in the Universe. Louis Nielsen defines the value of THE INVARIANT,
ABSOLUTE, AND DISCRETE COSMIC TIME, the age of the Universe, to be proportional
to the actual number of unitons in the Universe.

The *direction of time* - the
arrow of time - is in that direction where the number of unitons in the
Universe is increasing!

**Absolute discrete increasing
Cosmic Entropy **

Louis Nielsen defines an invariant and absolute DISCRETE COSMIC
ENTROPY quantity proportional to the actual number of unitons in the
Universe.

The cosmic increasing of the entropy is thus a consequence of the increasing
number of unitons.

**The absolute Cosmological
System of Units**

Louis Nielsen shows that the quantum physical elementary quantities -
the elementary length, the elementary time and the elementary mass - the actual
mass of a uniton - represents an absolute and cosmological system of units,
independent of specific local systems. Louis Nielsen has introduced the
following names for the absolute cosmological quantum units:

1) The Elementary Length, defines the physical unit of distance: 1
spaton

2) The Elementary Time, defines the physical unit of time: 1 tempon

3) The Elementary Mass, defines the physical unit of mass: 1 masson

Using these universal measuring units, we get the following for the
total mass of the Universe, its extension and its age:

The present total mass of the Universe is: 7.2·10^{127} massons

The present extension of the Universe is: 7.2·10^{127} spatons

The present age of the Universe is: 7.2·10^{127} tempons

The number of unitons in the present Universe is: 7.2·10^{127}

As you will see the values for the mass of the Universe, its extension
and its age, are equal to the actual number of unitons in the Universe and the
actual value of the cosmic evolution quantum number, N^{3}. Other
physical 'constants', if expressed in the cosmological units, are shown also to
'tick along' together with the cosmic evolution quantum number.

When the Universe was 'born' within the first cosmic quantum time
interval, the above numbers were all equal to the number ONE..

In the units, introduced by man for practical purposes, meter, second
and kilogram, we have:

The present mass of the Universe is: 1.6·10^{60} kilograms

The present extension of the Universe is: 1·10^{26} meters

The present age of the Universe is: 3.3·10^{17} seconds

The number of unitons in the Universe is: 7.2·10^{127}

It will be seen that the cosmological quantum units are much more
systematic and fundamental.

**Explanation of the 'Planck
quantities'**

Louis Nielsen explains and shows which roles the so-called 'Planck
quantities' has in his holistic quantum cosmology. He shows that when the
Universe had an age equal to the 'Planck time',

1.4 · 10^{-43} seconds after the Universe was 'born', and an
extension equal to the 'Planck length',

4.1 · 10^{-35} m, it consisted of 2.9 · 10^{67}
elementary quanta – unitons – each with a mass equal to the 'Planck mass' of 5.5
· 10^{-8} kg.

A natural explanation of the relatively great value of the 'Planck mass'
is thus given by Louis Nielsen's Quantum Cosmological Theory! The 'Planck
state' of the Universe is only a definite state during the quantum evolution of
the Universe.

The most fundamental physical quantities are:

*The elementary length, the
elementary time, and the total energy/matter mass of the Universe! *

* *

**Uniton explanation of the
equation 'E = m****×****c ^{2
}'**

By his uniton-mechanical theory, Louis Nielsen gives a
physical-mechanical explanation of the famous equation: E = m·c², showing that
m·c², is equal to the *total kinetic
energy of the unitons*, of which a body with mass m consists. c is the
velocity of light in so-called vacuum. That a 'system of matter',
notwithstanding its external chemical appearance, contains a total internal
energy, determined by its total mass and thereby the total number of unitons of
which it consists, is hereby easily understandable!

**Electric charge as a measure
of the number of unitons in an electron. Electric fields explained as
uniton-currents**

According to Louis Nielsen's theory 'electric charge' as a fundamental
quantity does not exist in nature. It is only a 'describing quantity' introduced
by physicists in lack of a deeper understanding.

Louis Nielsen derives a formula showing a connection between the 'electric
charge' of the electron and the mass of the electron. As the mass of an
electron is proportional to the number of unitons of which it consists, this
shows that what is called 'electric charge' is a measure of a number of force-active
unitons.

What are called "fields" in ordinary physics, for example
"gravitational fields", "electric fields" etc. are regions
in which there are acting forces. These forces can be establised by
'UNITON-CURRENTS', moving from a region with a higher density of unitons -
number of unitons per unit volume - to
a region with a lower density of unitons.

'Uniton-currents' are established in regions where there are
differences in uniton-densities.

As an example we can look at an
'electric plate capacitor': In the plate with the negative 'electric charge',
there is a HIGHER density of unitons than in the plate with the positive
'electric charge'. The UNITON-DENSITY DIFFERENCE between the two plates results
in 'uniton-currents' between the two plates, in the direction from the negative
electric plate to the positive electric plate. If, for example, an electron is
placed between the two plates, then the electron will be PUSHED by the unitons
in the uniton-currents. The electron will be acted by, what we are calling, an
"electrical force". Fundamentally these "electrical forces"
are "collisions-forces" between unitons! All other forces are also
interactions between unitons. For example the 'Casimir forces'.

The uniton-mechanical explanation give us a simple mechanism of the
phenomena of nature. The UNITONS are the most fundamental units in the Universe
and they give an unification of microcosmos and macrocosmos.

**Unstable particles as
'compression-quanta' in the CUF**

When - for example - two electrons collide in an accelerator they will
compress the unitons in the CUF, resulting in different *"compression-quanta"* consisting of *"uniton-clusters"*. These 'compression-quanta' are
detected as 'unstable particles' with different masses and life-times.

The electrons themselves will, after the collision, also disintegrate
to different 'uniton-clusters', which are also detected as different unstable
'particles'.

The 'compression-quanta' are
like 'phonons' and 'solitons' in known matter! (And like moving high-pressure
and low-pressure systems in the atmosphere, which also have there life-times).

That there can be formed many
different unstable so-called 'elementary particles' with different masses and
life-times can thus be understanded and explained PHYSICALLY by Louis Nielsen's
UNITON-THEORY.

**Inertia and Gravitation
caused by uniton-collisions**

Louis Nielsen gives a physically mechanical solutions to the problems
of "Inertia" and "Gravitation" in his "Holistic
Quantum Cosmology".

According to his Quantum Cosmological Theory there DOES NOT exist
absolute empty space. All over the Universe, also in so-called vacuum, there exists
a "COSMIC UNITON-FIELD" (CUF) consisting of UNITONS. The unitons are
the smallest and most fundamental discrete energy/matter quanta - the true atoms - in the Universe.The
cosmic unitons are moving in all directions with very high velocities. The unitons
are the fundamental building blocks of 'matter'. The 'inertial mass' and the 'gravitational mass' of a given body
is PROPORTIONAL to the NUMBER of
unitons of which the body consists.
From this we have that the 'inertial
mass' is proportional to the 'gravitational mass'. (The Principle of
Equivalence).

The cause of "inertia" (and "gravitation") is
mechanical collisions between the
unitons of which a body consists and the unitons in the CUF. The
"inertia" (and the "gravitation") is an interaction between
the unitons in the body AND the unitons in the CUF. When a body moves with *constant
velocity *the collision-forces from the COSMIC unitons are equal from all
sides of the body. When the body *accelerate*
in the CUF there are, per unit time, a greater number of uniton-collisions in
front of the body than behind the body.
The consequence is a resulting COSMIC
uniton-force opposite to the direction
of moving. To resist the cosmic uniton-forces
an applied force must be used in agreement with Newton's second
law. Note! the following: The "uniton
collision-forces" on a body ARE
NOT "surface-forces" but "volume-forces" because the unitons penetrate the body.

It must be expected that the
uniton-density of the "Cosmic Uniton-Field" is highly uniform in
large regions. In such uniform regions the 'inertial mass' of a body does not
depend on the direction in which the
body is moving. But, in regions where the densities of the "Cosmic
Uniton-Field" are not exactly uniform, the "mass-quantity" of a
body must be replaced by a
"mass-tensor quantity".

**Maxwell Analog Gravitational
Theory**

As a replacement of Einstein's theory of gravitation and an extension
of Newton's theory of gravitation, Louis Nielsen shows that around gravitating
masses in relative motion, there exist two gravitational fields. These
gravitational fields obey equations mathematically analog to Maxwell's
equations for electromagnetic fields. Besides the known newtonian gravitational
field a *'rotational field'* exists
around gravitating masses in relative motion. The 'rotational field', also
called the *'gravito-magnetic' *field
corresponds to the magnetic field around an electrically charged particle in
motion. In our epoch the 'gravito-magnetic' fields are extremely weak and
therefore difficult to measure with the measuring instruments available today.
The 'gravito-magnetic' field has been stronger in earlier epochs, and it can
f.i. give an explanation of the spiral structure of the galaxies.

**New Theory about the
formation of stars and planets. Super-Nuclei**

A new theory about the formation and evolution of stars, the creation
of elements and the release of energy in the stars is based on the existence of
*Super Nuclei*, viz. nuclei with
extremely high nucleonic numbers. Such super nuclei are present in the core of
the stars and disintegrate to all the known elements, simultaneously releasing
energy.

A new explosion theory about
the formation of our planetary system is a logical consequence of Louis
Nielsen's Star Theory.

Comments to Louis Nielsen's Theories:
e-mail: LNi@Herlufsholm.dk

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