Holistic Quantum Cosmology with Decreasing Gravity
A unifying theory about the universe
The UNITON THEORY
The Danish physicist Louis Nielsen has, by quantization of space, time and mass, discovered connections between microcosmos and macrocosmos. This discovery - giving a possibility for a Quantum Theory about the Universe - shows a connection between cosmological quantities, such as the total energy/matter mass of the Universe, its actual extension, the velocity of light and the gravitational 'constant', and atomic quantities, such as Planck's constant, the mass of an electron, its extension and its electric charge.
The whole theory is based on the existence of a physically smallest distance - the elementary length - with the value of r0 = 1.4·10-102 m, a physically smallest time interval - the elementary time - with the value of t0 = 4.7·10-111 s, and a variable actually smallest physical mass - the elementary mass - with an actual value of mu = 2.2·10-68 kg. This smallest mass represents the smallest and most fundamental energy/matter quantum in the actual Universe and is by Louis Nielsen called an UNITON. All physical lengths, time intervals and masses are equal to a natural number multiplied by the respective elementary quantity.
The Cosmic Uniton-Field, the CUF
'THE COSMIC UNITON-FIELD' is a concept introduced by Louis Nielsen in his theories about 'The Evolving Dynamic Quantum Universe'. The "COSMIC UNITON-FIELD", abbreviated the CUF, is the fundamental background cosmic "Quantum Medium" in which ALL processes are going on. The CUF consists of UNITONS. The unitons are the smallest and most fundamental energy/matter quanta in the Universe. The uniton has - in our epoch - a mass which is about 1037 times smaller than the mass of an electron. The unitons exist all over the Universe, also in so-called empty space (vacuum). In the CUF the unitons move in all directions with very high velocities.
The unitons can penetrate all matter. In our epoch the temperature of the CUF is near
the absolute zero of temperature, near 0 kelvin. Ordinary 'matter', like electrons, are quantum-dynamical subsystems in the CUF, they are 'Bose-Einstein condensations' in the extremely cold CUF.
The discrete uniton-evolution of the Universe
When the Universe was 'born' within the first cosmic quantum time interval, at about 11 billion years ago, it had an extension equal to the elementary length, and it consisted of only one quantum, called the Cosmic Embryoton. The evolution of the Universe is 'controlled' by a 'Cosmic Evolution Quantum Number', N3, which is 'ticking' up through the natural numbers. The number N is equal to the actual ratio between the magnitude of the electrostatic forces and the gravitostatic forces between two electrons. In our epoch N = 4.17·1042.
The Universe was born when N took the value 1. Gradually, as the 'cosmic evolution quantum number' increased in 'steps', the original cosmic embryoton is divided into more and more unitons. The actual number of unitons is equal to the actual value of the cosmic evolution quantum number. This increasing number of unitons, with smaller and smaller masses, is spreading out in a discrete expanding universe.
A consequence of the increasing value of N is a generally discrete decrease of the gravitation in the Universe. When the Universe was 'born', the gravitation was N times higher than in our epoch.
The extension of the present universe is shown to be N³ = 7.2·10127 times the elementary length, corresponding to an extension of 1026 m. The number 7.2·10127 is also the number of unitons in the present universe, which gives a total mass of the universe equal to 1.6·1060 kg.
As the huge number of unitons are not all 'bound' in what we call 'matter', the highest number of unitons must be found in so-called empty space, also called vacuum. The theory therefore predicts the existence of a cosmic "Quantum Medium '', consisting of unitons. This cosmic 'Quantum Medium' is by Louis Nielsen called the 'Cosmic Uniton-Field', abbreviated CUF. The unitons in the CUF move in all directions with very high velocities. The temperature of the CUF is near the absolute zero of temperature, near 0 kelvin. As a logical consequence of his theory about the universe, Louis Nielsen introduces an uniton-dynamical and cosmic dependent model of the electron.
'Matter', like electrons, are 'Bose-Einstein condensations' in the very cold CUF.
Louis Nielsen gives an uniton mechanical explanation of both the gravitational forces and the electrical forces between two electrons. The forces are established through mechanical collision-forces between unitons. He thus shows that the electrical forces are of the same basic nature as the gravitational forces, however with a strength being N times greater.
Louis Nielsen gives a uniton-mechanical explanation of the fact that bodies with different masses fall – in vacuum – with the same acceleration near to f.i. the Earth, an experimental result which was demonstrated by Galilei's famous fall experiment, but which has been difficult to explain theoretically.
The connection between gravitational forces and electrical forces is a consequence of Louis Nielsen's discovery of another connection between microcosmos and macrocosmos, namely that the ratio between the mass density, or the uniton-density, in an electron and the average mass density, or the uniton-density, of the universe is equal to the number N. In other words: The uniton-density in an electron is N times the average uniton-density of the universe.
As a consequence of the discovered equations, other equations are derived, permitting us to calculate the total mass of the Universe, its actual extension and its age, by means of locally measured atomic physical constants and the gravitational'constant'.
Invariant discrete Absolute Cosmic Time, the age of the Universe
According to Louis Nielsen's Theory every cosmic quantum 'jump' gives ONE MORE UNITON IN THE UNIVERSE and this quantum change in the universe is equivalent to one cosmic elementary time interval. (Tempus mutatio est).
The age of the Universe is thus proportional to the actual total number of unitons in the Universe. Louis Nielsen defines the value of THE INVARIANT, ABSOLUTE, AND DISCRETE COSMIC TIME, the age of the Universe, to be proportional to the actual number of unitons in the Universe.
The direction of time - the arrow of time - is in that direction where the number of unitons in the Universe is increasing!
Absolute discrete increasing Cosmic Entropy
Louis Nielsen defines an invariant and absolute DISCRETE COSMIC ENTROPY quantity proportional to the actual number of unitons in the Universe.
The cosmic increasing of the entropy is thus a consequence of the increasing number of unitons.
The absolute Cosmological System of Units
Louis Nielsen shows that the quantum physical elementary quantities - the elementary length, the elementary time and the elementary mass - the actual mass of a uniton - represents an absolute and cosmological system of units, independent of specific local systems. Louis Nielsen has introduced the following names for the absolute cosmological quantum units:
1) The Elementary Length, defines the physical unit of distance: 1 spaton
2) The Elementary Time, defines the physical unit of time: 1 tempon
3) The Elementary Mass, defines the physical unit of mass: 1 masson
Using these universal measuring units, we get the following for the total mass of the Universe, its extension and its age:
The present total mass of the Universe is: 7.2·10127 massons
The present extension of the Universe is: 7.2·10127 spatons
The present age of the Universe is: 7.2·10127 tempons
The number of unitons in the present Universe is: 7.2·10127
As you will see the values for the mass of the Universe, its extension and its age, are equal to the actual number of unitons in the Universe and the actual value of the cosmic evolution quantum number, N3. Other physical 'constants', if expressed in the cosmological units, are shown also to 'tick along' together with the cosmic evolution quantum number.
When the Universe was 'born' within the first cosmic quantum time interval, the above numbers were all equal to the number ONE..
In the units, introduced by man for practical purposes, meter, second and kilogram, we have:
The present mass of the Universe is: 1.6·1060 kilograms
The present extension of the Universe is: 1·1026 meters
The present age of the Universe is: 3.3·1017 seconds
The number of unitons in the Universe is: 7.2·10127
It will be seen that the cosmological quantum units are much more systematic and fundamental.
Explanation of the 'Planck quantities'
Louis Nielsen explains and shows which roles the so-called 'Planck quantities' has in his holistic quantum cosmology. He shows that when the Universe had an age equal to the 'Planck time',
1.4 · 10-43 seconds after the Universe was 'born', and an extension equal to the 'Planck length',
4.1 · 10-35 m, it consisted of 2.9 · 1067 elementary quanta – unitons – each with a mass equal to the 'Planck mass' of 5.5 · 10-8 kg.
A natural explanation of the relatively great value of the 'Planck mass' is thus given by Louis Nielsen's Quantum Cosmological Theory! The 'Planck state' of the Universe is only a definite state during the quantum evolution of the Universe.
The most fundamental physical quantities are:
The elementary length, the elementary time, and the total energy/matter mass of the Universe!
Uniton explanation of the equation 'E = m×c2 '
By his uniton-mechanical theory, Louis Nielsen gives a physical-mechanical explanation of the famous equation: E = m·c², showing that m·c², is equal to the total kinetic energy of the unitons, of which a body with mass m consists. c is the velocity of light in so-called vacuum. That a 'system of matter', notwithstanding its external chemical appearance, contains a total internal energy, determined by its total mass and thereby the total number of unitons of which it consists, is hereby easily understandable!
Electric charge as a measure of the number of unitons in an electron. Electric fields explained as uniton-currents
According to Louis Nielsen's theory 'electric charge' as a fundamental quantity does not exist in nature. It is only a 'describing quantity' introduced by physicists in lack of a deeper understanding.
Louis Nielsen derives a formula showing a connection between the 'electric charge' of the electron and the mass of the electron. As the mass of an electron is proportional to the number of unitons of which it consists, this shows that what is called 'electric charge' is a measure of a number of force-active unitons.
What are called "fields" in ordinary physics, for example "gravitational fields", "electric fields" etc. are regions in which there are acting forces. These forces can be establised by 'UNITON-CURRENTS', moving from a region with a higher density of unitons - number of unitons per unit volume - to a region with a lower density of unitons.
'Uniton-currents' are established in regions where there are differences in uniton-densities.
As an example we can look at an 'electric plate capacitor': In the plate with the negative 'electric charge', there is a HIGHER density of unitons than in the plate with the positive 'electric charge'. The UNITON-DENSITY DIFFERENCE between the two plates results in 'uniton-currents' between the two plates, in the direction from the negative electric plate to the positive electric plate. If, for example, an electron is placed between the two plates, then the electron will be PUSHED by the unitons in the uniton-currents. The electron will be acted by, what we are calling, an "electrical force". Fundamentally these "electrical forces" are "collisions-forces" between unitons! All other forces are also interactions between unitons. For example the 'Casimir forces'.
The uniton-mechanical explanation give us a simple mechanism of the phenomena of nature. The UNITONS are the most fundamental units in the Universe and they give an unification of microcosmos and macrocosmos.
Unstable particles as 'compression-quanta' in the CUF
When - for example - two electrons collide in an accelerator they will compress the unitons in the CUF, resulting in different "compression-quanta" consisting of "uniton-clusters". These 'compression-quanta' are detected as 'unstable particles' with different masses and life-times.
The electrons themselves will, after the collision, also disintegrate to different 'uniton-clusters', which are also detected as different unstable 'particles'.
The 'compression-quanta' are like 'phonons' and 'solitons' in known matter! (And like moving high-pressure and low-pressure systems in the atmosphere, which also have there life-times).
That there can be formed many different unstable so-called 'elementary particles' with different masses and life-times can thus be understanded and explained PHYSICALLY by Louis Nielsen's UNITON-THEORY.
Inertia and Gravitation caused by uniton-collisions
Louis Nielsen gives a physically mechanical solutions to the problems of "Inertia" and "Gravitation" in his "Holistic Quantum Cosmology".
According to his Quantum Cosmological Theory there DOES NOT exist absolute empty space. All over the Universe, also in so-called vacuum, there exists a "COSMIC UNITON-FIELD" (CUF) consisting of UNITONS. The unitons are the smallest and most fundamental discrete energy/matter quanta - the true atoms - in the Universe.The cosmic unitons are moving in all directions with very high velocities. The unitons are the fundamental building blocks of 'matter'. The 'inertial mass' and the 'gravitational mass' of a given body is PROPORTIONAL to the NUMBER of unitons of which the body consists. From this we have that the 'inertial mass' is proportional to the 'gravitational mass'. (The Principle of Equivalence).
The cause of "inertia" (and "gravitation") is mechanical collisions between the unitons of which a body consists and the unitons in the CUF. The "inertia" (and the "gravitation") is an interaction between the unitons in the body AND the unitons in the CUF. When a body moves with constant velocity the collision-forces from the COSMIC unitons are equal from all sides of the body. When the body accelerate in the CUF there are, per unit time, a greater number of uniton-collisions in front of the body than behind the body. The consequence is a resulting COSMIC uniton-force opposite to the direction of moving. To resist the cosmic uniton-forces an applied force must be used in agreement with Newton's second law. Note! the following: The "uniton collision-forces" on a body ARE NOT "surface-forces" but "volume-forces" because the unitons penetrate the body.
It must be expected that the uniton-density of the "Cosmic Uniton-Field" is highly uniform in large regions. In such uniform regions the 'inertial mass' of a body does not depend on the direction in which the body is moving. But, in regions where the densities of the "Cosmic Uniton-Field" are not exactly uniform, the "mass-quantity" of a body must be replaced by a "mass-tensor quantity".
Maxwell Analog Gravitational Theory
As a replacement of Einstein's theory of gravitation and an extension of Newton's theory of gravitation, Louis Nielsen shows that around gravitating masses in relative motion, there exist two gravitational fields. These gravitational fields obey equations mathematically analog to Maxwell's equations for electromagnetic fields. Besides the known newtonian gravitational field a 'rotational field' exists around gravitating masses in relative motion. The 'rotational field', also called the 'gravito-magnetic' field corresponds to the magnetic field around an electrically charged particle in motion. In our epoch the 'gravito-magnetic' fields are extremely weak and therefore difficult to measure with the measuring instruments available today. The 'gravito-magnetic' field has been stronger in earlier epochs, and it can f.i. give an explanation of the spiral structure of the galaxies.
New Theory about the formation of stars and planets. Super-Nuclei
A new theory about the formation and evolution of stars, the creation of elements and the release of energy in the stars is based on the existence of Super Nuclei, viz. nuclei with extremely high nucleonic numbers. Such super nuclei are present in the core of the stars and disintegrate to all the known elements, simultaneously releasing energy.
A new explosion theory about the formation of our planetary system is a logical consequence of Louis Nielsen's Star Theory.
Comments to Louis Nielsen's Theories: e-mail: LNi@Herlufsholm.dk
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