Quantized Cosmic Entropy and its Relation to Space,
Time, and Unitons
The Solutions to the Problem of Increasing Entropy and
'the Arrow of Time'
by cand.scient. Louis Nielsen
INTRODUCTION
In the following, I show a connection
between the total absolute entropy of the Universe
the cosmic entropy
its total mass, extension and age, and the actual number of the
smallest energy/matterquanta in the Universe.
These smallest energy/matter quanta I have given the
name unitons.
In my holistic quantum theory of the Universe,
I have derived equations from which we can calculate
the actual extension of the Universe, its actual age
and its total mass. I also show that these quantities
can be calculated from measured atomic quantities.
(Note: The word holistic came from Greek: holos: whole).
If I define that the quantized cosmic entropy is proportional
to the actual total number of unitons in the Universe,
it can give a solution to the problem of the direction
of time  the arrow of time.
What we call 'matter' is BoseEinstein condensations
of unitons in the cosmic uniton field.
THE HOLISTIC QUANTUM UNIVERSE.
DIE WELTFORMEL
My discovery  more than thirty years ago  is the
following discrete connection between the actual
extension R of the Universe and the physically smallest
distance in the Universe the elementary length  r_{0}:
(1)
where r_{0 }has connection to Plancks constant h,
the velocity of light c_{0} and the total energy/matter
mass M_{0 }of the Universe. k_{C }is coulombs constant, e the
electric charge of an electron, m_{e }the gravitational mass of an electron
and G is the gravitational 'constant', which is a discrete decreasing
quantity in my quantum cosmology. (Please see my treatise).
Equation (1) connects the most important physical
quantities from microcosmos and macrocosmos.
It is a holistic formula. It is 'Die Weltformel'!
The Universe  with its matter/energy and space  is
evolving in quantum 'jumps'. The evolution of the
Universe is 'controlled' by a COSMIC EVOLUTION
QUANTUM NUMBER N^{3} 'ticking' up through the NATURAL numbers.
The Universe was 'born' when N^{3} took the value 1.
In our epoch N^{3} is equal to 7.2·10^{127}.
N is equal to the actual ratio between the magnitude
of the electrostatic forces and the gravitostatic
forces between two electrons. The value of N in our
epoch is: N = 4.17·10^{42}.
From equation (1) we get:
(2)
where m_{u} is the physically smallest mass in the Universe.
This mass represents the smallest energy/matter
quantum in the Universe  the true atom!
This smallest energy quantum I have called a
UNITON.
We see from equation (2) that the actual Universe
 in every of its quantum states 
consists of N^{3 } unitons. In our epoch the number of
unitons are 7.2×
10^{127}. The existence of unitons
in the cosmic space  also in so called vacuum  gives
the possibility for a mechanical explanation of
gravitational forces which is in accordance
with Newtons gravitational law. (Equivalent to the theory
proposed by GeorgeLouis Le Sage (17241803)).
I calculate the total mass M_{0} in the Universe to 1.6·10^{60} kg.
With this value of the mass of the Universe, the value
of the elementary length r_{0} is equal to 1.4·10^{102} meter
and the actual mass of a uniton is 2.2·10^{68} kg.
From equation (1) we see that R is proportional to the
actual total number of unitons. The actual extension of
the Universe is about 10^{26} meter.
From the elementary length r_{0} we can define
a quantum of time  the elementary time  t_{0}:
(3)
where c_{0} is the velocity of light, measured in the
laboratory in relation to a 'locally defined time
measure'.
When r_{0} and t_{0} are cosmic invariant quantities,
this implies a cosmic invariant c_{0}.
All physical distances (also R), time intervals and
masses are equal to a NATURAL quantum number multiplied by
the respective elementary quantity (r_{0}, t_{0} and m_{u}).
The Universe was 'born' when it took the first
cosmic quantum 'jump' and where it consisted of ONLY ONE QUANTUM,
with an extension equal to the
elementary length r_{0} and a mass equal to the total
mass M_{0} of the Universe. This quantum I call
THE COSMIC EMBRYOTON.
Gradually, as the cosmic evolution quantum number
increased, the original cosmic embryoton divided
into more and more unitons. This increasing
number of unitons, with smaller and smaller masses,
is spreading out in a quantum growing Universe.
INVARIANT DISCRETE COSMIC TIME.
Every cosmic quantum 'jump' gives ONE MORE UNITON
IN THE UNIVERSE and this quantum change in the
universe is equivalent to one cosmic elementary time interval.
The cosmic time is equivalent to the the number of unitons in
the Universe. ( Time motto: TEMPUS MUTATIO EST ,'Time is change').
We can define the value T of THE INVARIANT, ABSOLUTE,
AND DISCRETE COSMIC TIME to be proportional
to the actual numbers N^{3 }of unitons in the Universe:
(4)
where we have chosen the elementary time t_{0} to be the
proportional constant. T also defines the age of
the actual Universe. Equation (4) gives T = 10.7·10^{9} years.
The direction of time  the arrow of time  is in that
direction where the number of unitons in the Universe
is increasing!
We can write equation (4) as follows:
(5)
We see that T is a discrete function of the actual mass of
the uniton.
T is inversely proportional to the mass m_{u} of a uniton.
The factor ((M_{0}·r_{0})/c_{0}) acts as a proportional constant.
ABSOLUTE DISCRETE COSMIC ENTROPY
AND THE COSMIC UNITONTEMPERATURE.
MATTER AS BOSEEINSTEIN CONDENSATIONS
We can define an invariant and DISCRETE ABSOLUTE
COSMIC ENTROPY quantity S by the following equation:
(6)
where k =1.38×
10^{23} joule/kelvin is Boltzmann's constant,
and N^{3} is the actual total number of unitons in the Universe.
In our epoch N^{3 }= 7.2·10^{127}, and this gives approximately:
S = 1·10^{105} joule/kelvin. We see that the law of increasing
entropy of the Universe is a consequence of the increasing number
of unitons in the Universe. Equation (6) gives a quantization of
the entropy quantity.
We can define an ABSOLUTE DISCRETE COSMIC UNITONtemperature,
t
(in kelvin), according to:
(7)
where M_{0} = 1.6·10^{60} kg is the total mass of the Universe,
c_{0} = 3·10^{8} m/s is the velocity of light, and m_{u}
the actual mass of one uniton. With these values we have for the
cosmic unitontemperature
in our epoch t = 1.4·10^{28} kelvin,
an extreme low cosmic unitonfield temperature!
Notice: A consequence of the extreme low cosmic unitonfield
temperature is: What we call 'matter' is BoseEinstein
condensations of unitons in the cosmic unitonfield!
COSMIC ENTROPY AND ITS RELATION TO SPACE, TIME AND MASS.
THE DIRECTION OF TIME. THE UNIT ENTROPON
The cosmic entropy has connections to the actual extension of the Universe,
its actual age and the actual mass of a uniton. The connections are:
(8)
We see that S is proportional to R and proportional to T and inversely proportionate to m_{u } .
In quantum cosmological units with one entropon defined as:
1 entropon = k = 1.38·10^{23} joule/kelvin
we have: The actual total cosmic entropy S is: S = 7.2·10^{127} entropons.
My discoveries gives a solution to the problem called 'the arrow of time', the experiences that
all processes go only in one direction.
The direction of time is in that direction in which the total number og unitons in the Universe is increasing!
COSMOLOGICAL UNITS AND THE QUANTUM STATE OF THE UNIVERSE
The elementary quantum quantities r_{0}, t_{0} and m_{u} represent
an absolute and cosmological system of units.
I call these units: 1 spaton, 1 tempon and 1 masson.
In quantum cosmological units the actual quantum state of the Universe is given by:
The actual number of unitons is:  7.2·10^{127} 
The actual mass of the Universe is:  7.2·10^{127} massons 
The actual extension of the Universe is:  7.2·10^{127} spatons 
The actual age of the Universe is:  7.2·10^{127} tempons 
The actual total entropy of the Universe:  7.2·10^{127} entropons 
Notice, that all the values are equal to the actual cosmic evolution quantum number!
Email: LNi@Herlufsholm.dk
© Louis Nielsen, May 1999
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